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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 6

A new look at screening and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in first degree relatives: Role of HbA1c, insulin resistance, metal ions and heat shock proteins


Department of Biochemistry, Gujranwala Medical College, Gujranwala and Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore - Pakistan

Correspondence Address:
R Khurshid
Department of Biochemistry, Gujranwala Medical College, Gujranwala and Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore - Pakistan

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


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Family history of diabetes is a major risk factor for the disease. Approximately 35-50% of patients with type 2 diabetes are asymptomatic and unaware of their condition. Present study was conducted to find out the role of metals including calcium, phosphorous and magnesium and heat shock protein (HSP) i.e. HSPs 72 and HSPs 60 in early diagnosis of diabetes in their first degree relatives. Fifty subjects (25 males and 25 female) with the age range of 26-35 years and positive family history of diabetes were enrolled in the study. The present study was performed at the Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore - Pakistan from 2008 to 2009. Twenty age matched subjects with no history of any disease were taken as controls. All participants were interviewed for general demographic characteristics and current use of medications. Levels of HSPs 72 and HSPs 60 were estimated by the technique of SDS electrophoresis. Body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance were calculated. Plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and serum insulin was estimated by standard methods. Mean age of females and male first degree relatives was 29.67 and 30.44 years respectively. Their BMI was greater than controls (p > 0.05). Level of fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, serum insulin and insulin resistance were increased as compared to their controls but significant difference (p < 0.001) was only observed in male first degree relative (FDR) serum insulin levels. Level of serum calcium and magnesium was decreased in FDR as compared to their controls but significant difference (p < 0.05) was only observed in serum calcium. In female FDR the significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed in both serum calcium and magnesium. Level of serum phosphorus was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in FDR as compared to controls. Raw volume of HSPs 72 and HSPs 60 was significantly increased (p < 0.001, p < 0.05) in FDR as compared to controls. To our knowledge, these are the first estimate of altered mineral elements, impaired fasting blood glucose, HbA1c and serum insulin and their relationship with heat shock protein in FDRs of individuals with type 2 diabetes in Pakistan as an early predictor of diabetes. It is possible that these impairments may contribute to the expression of the disease.


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