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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-6

Incidence and factors associated with diabetic retinopathy among diabetic patients at arbaminch general hospital, gamo gofa Zone (longitudinal follow up data analysis)


1 Department of Public Health, Welkite University, Hawassa, Ethiopia
2 Department of Public Health, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia

Correspondence Address:
Yilma Chisha
Department of Biostatistics and Health Informatics, Arba Minch College of Health Sciences, Hawassa
Ethiopia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jod.jod_6_17

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Background: Currently, 93 million people are estimated as living with diabetic retinopathy (DR) worldwide. The incidence, retinopathy-free survival time and associated factors of DR in developed countries have been well documented; but in Ethiopia, national data on incidence and associated factors of DR are lacking. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine incidence and factors associated with the development of DR among diabetic patients at Arbaminch General Hospital, Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: Longitudinal follow-up data analysis with record review of 400 diabetic patients was conducted at Arbaminch General Hospital. Among 400 diabetic patients, 270 diabetic patients with baseline information and without a history of hypertension at baseline were included in this study. Whereas, pregnancy induced diabetes and patients with retinopathy at baseline were excluded from this study. Consecutive sampling technique was applied to select study participants. Data of cohorts were extracted from medical record using pre-tested structured extraction checklist. Data cleaning, coding, categorising, merging and analysis carried out by STATA version 12. Descriptive statistics was done and summarised accordingly. Bivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was done to select potential candidates for the full model atP ≤ 0.25 and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was made to estimate the independent effect of predictors on the incidence of DR. Model diagnostic tests were performed and final model fitness was checked by Cox and Snell residuals; finally, statistical significance was tested atP < 0.05. Results: Overall incidence of DR at Arbaminch General Hospital among diabetic patients ever enrolled since 1990 E.C. was ~36 cases per 1000 patients per year and an estimated median time to develop was approximately 10 years. The incidence of diabetic retinopathy was high among patients whose disease duration was >12 years. Adjusted analysis showed that the hazard of developing DR was statistically and positively associated with baseline age, baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) level and fasting blood glucose (FBG) level. Conclusion: In the current study, the incidence of DR was high. Since baseline age, baseline SBP level and high FBG level were statistically and positively related with the development of DR; special care should be given in addition to routine care.


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