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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 41-47

HIV and antiretroviral therapy-induced metabolic syndrome in people living with HIV and its implications for care: A critical review


Discipline of Public Health Medicine, College of Health Sciences, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, RSA

Correspondence Address:
Ms. Sakhile Khetsiwe Salome Masuku
Discipline of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Private Bag, X54001, Durban 400
RSA
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jod.jod_21_18

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HIV has remained a major global public health concern for more than three decades. While global efforts are coalesced in the fight against HIV, the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) is continuously increasing due to the rollout of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This relates, in part, to the intensified efforts in HIV prevention and control strategies through extensive HIV testing. Consequently, more and new people have learnt their HIV-positive status, implying that more are at risk of suffering the negative effects of HIV and ART. HIV has been implicated in the development of many non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study conducted a critical review of the literature on the mechanisms through which HIV and ART cause metabolic syndrome, and the implications such understanding has to the care provided to PLHIV. The findings of this review suggest that HIV induces metabolic syndrome through stimulation of immune cells which, in turn, trigger an inflammatory response. ART also triggers the inflammatory response. The inflammatory response suppresses adiponectin and causes impaired insulin action on skeletal muscles. Since the presence of metabolic syndrome greatly increases the risk of non-communicable diseases, particularly T2DM, there is a need for metabolic syndrome screening and prevention among PLHIV. Conducting routine body mass index and waist circumference measurement with periodical triglycerides measurement is necessary for the early detection of metabolic syndrome and the prevention of T2DM and cardiovascular conditions. There is also a need for a model of care for PLHIV that will provide guidance on the prevention of metabolic syndrome hence prevent the development of T2DM with its dire effects on the quality of life.


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