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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-7

Erectile dysfunction in diabetes mellitus: A review


1 Department of Medicine, Sir J J Group of Hospital and Grant Government Medical College, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Dr. Mohan’s Diabetes Specialities Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Deepak K Jumani
Department of Medicine, Sir JJ Group of Government Hospitals and Grant Medical College, 10, Shastri Nagar, Near Vibgyor High School, Link Road, Goregaon West, Mumbai - 400 104, Maharashtra.
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jod.jod_42_18

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The International Diabetes Federation estimates that globally there are 425 million people with diabetes. Estimates of the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men with diabetes range from 20% to 85% in different studies. Among men with ED, those with diabetes are likely to experience the problem 10–15 years earlier than men without diabetes. This review aims to provide an update of the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of ED in diabetes patients in India. The proposed mechanisms of ED in diabetic patients include elevated advanced glycation end-products and increased levels of oxygen-free radicals, impaired nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, increased endothelin B receptor binding sites and ultrastructural changes, upregulated RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway, NO-dependent selective nitrergic nerve degeneration and impaired cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent kinase-1. Modifiable risk factors for ED include smoking, lack of physical activity, wrong diets, overweight or obesity, metabolic syndrome and excessive alcohol consumption. Therefore, the promotion of healthful lifestyles would yield great benefits in reducing the burden of ED. The treatment of diabetic ED is multimodal. The treatment of the underlying hyperglycaemia and comorbidities is of utmost importance to prevent the progression of the disease. The peripherally acting oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors are the mainstay of oral medical treatment of ED in diabetics. Vacuum erection devices are an additional a non-invasive treatment option. The local administration of vasoactive medication through urethral suppository or intracorporal injection can be effective with minimal side-effects.


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