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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 57-64

COVID-19, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease


1 Moolchand Medcity, New Delhi, India
2 Division of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology, Medanta Heart Institute, New Delhi, India
3 A. G. Hospital, Tirupur, Tamil Nadu, India
4 Sir Gangaram Hospital, New Delhi, India
5 Apollo Institute for Blood Pressure Management, Apollo Medical College and Hospitals, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. C Venkata S Ram
Apollo Institute for Blood Pressure Management, Apollo Blood Pressure Clinics, Apollo Medical College and Hospitals, Hyderabad, Telangana.
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JOD.JOD_30_20

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The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 that has significant implications for the cardiovascular (CV) health of patients, although the respiratory disease is the predominant clinical sign of COVID-19. The presence of comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, and CV disease (CVD) increases the risk of morbidity and mortality due to CVD. Numerous patients with COVID-19 have basic CV ailments or develop severe heart injury due to the disease. Severe CV injury characterized by a huge rise of heart troponins is the most commonly seen effect on the heart. This happens in approximately 8%–12% of all patients. Direct myocardial injury because of viral association of cardiomyocytes and the effect of systemic inflammation appear to be the most common mechanisms responsible for the cardiac injury. The presence of preexisting CV disease and/or development of acute cardiac injury is associated with significantly worse outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Most of the current reports on COVID-19 have only briefly described CV manifestations in these patients. Given the significant adverse prognostic impact of cardiac involvement, further studies are needed on the incidence, mechanisms, clinical presentation, and outcomes of various CV manifestations in patients with COVID-19.


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