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   2017| January-April  | Volume 8 | Issue 1  
    Online since May 9, 2017

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Knowledge about gestational diabetes mellitus amongst pregnant women in South Tamil Nadu
Balaji Bhavadharini, Mohan Deepa, Sivagnanam Nallaperumal, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Viswanathan Mohan
January-April 2017, 8(1):22-26
Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), including risk factors, importance of screening and post-partum follow-up, amongst pregnant women attending antenatal care in maternity clinics in South India. Methodology: The study participants were recruited from two antenatal clinics in Chennai and a few primary healthcare centres in South India. A detailed questionnaire was used to obtain basic data regarding general awareness and knowledge about GDM and other issues related to screening, risk factors, monitoring, long-term consequences and post-partum follow-up. Education status was graded as illiterate, primary education, secondary education and graduates. A composite score for knowledge of GDM was calculated. Results: A total of 100 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were interviewed, of whom 59 were from urban Chennai and the rest from Kanchipuram district. Regarding risk factors of GDM, 48.8% of rural women were unaware of any risk factor while 55.9% of urban women reported a family history of diabetes as a risk factor. 49.2% of urban women and 75.6% of rural women did not know the long-term consequences of GDM to babies born to GDM women. 50.8% (urban women) said GDM could lead to type 2 diabetes mellitus in future while only 45% of rural women were aware of this. Mean composite score increased with higher education with graduates in both urban and rural areas, scoring the highest. Conclusion: Knowledge about GDM is poor amongst pregnant women, especially in rural areas. This highlights the need for training physicians, paramedical people and the public regarding GDM.
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Evaluation of pharmacists' educational and counselling impact on patients' clinical outcomes in a diabetic setting
Winifred Aitalegbe Ojieabu, Shakirat Iyabo Bello, John E Arute
January-April 2017, 8(1):7-11
Background: Nigeria had the highest number of people living with diabetes mellitus in the African region in year 2013. Previous researchers have found that patients with knowledge of their diseases including their treatment methods have a high likelihood to succeed in managing the disease conditions. Many pharmaceutical care programmes which have been successfully applied in various countries to enhance clinical outcomes and health-related quality of life are not very common in Nigeria. Objective: This study was to evaluate pharmacist's educational and counselling impact on diabetic patients' outcomes in a diabetic setting. Materials and Methods: The 4-month randomised controlled study involved 150 elderly Type 2 diabetic patients. Sociodemographic and clinical parameters were measured. We educated and counselled the 75 patients in our intervention group at least four times during the study period, but the control group was deprived of the pharmacist's intervention. Results: Female to male participants was in the ratio of 9:6 and 9:5 in both control and intervention groups, respectively. Majority (>40%) of the patients in both groups had primary education. Baseline and 4-month mean fasting blood sugar in the control group was 162.2 ± 69.1 and 159.9 ± 57.2, respectively (P = 0.825), whereas the intervention group had 156.7 ± 30.5 and 131.8 ± 40.4, respectively (P < 0.001). Mean systolic blood pressure in both groups was 146.4 ± 13.9 and 133.8 ± 18.5 (P < 0.001), respectively. Adherence levels to medication taking in both groups were 42.7%:94.7%, respectively (P = 0.001). Conclusion: This study encourages the inclusion of clinical pharmacists into multidisciplinary healthcare groups in hospital and clinic settings as well as incorporation of this type of intervention into diabetic management programmes for optimal patients' outcomes.
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Prevalence of glucose intolerance in cirrhotics and risk factors predicting its progression to diabetes mellitus
Pavan Hanchanale, Jayanthi Venkataraman, Mayank Jain, Vijaya Srinivasan, Joy Varghese
January-April 2017, 8(1):12-17
Background: Liver cirrhosis is a unique clinical entity wherein long-standing diabetes mellitus (DM) can predispose an individual to cirrhosis, and on the other hand, a long-standing cirrhosis liver can predispose a cirrhotic to DM, secondary to deranged glucose and insulin metabolism. Aim of the Study: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in patients with liver cirrhosis and risk factors predicting these patients to progression to DM. Materials and Methods: Adult patients above 18 years of age, with a diagnosis of cirrhosis of liver, irrespective of the diabetic status, the aetiology and severity of liver disease, were enrolled for the prospective cross-sectional study. The American Diabetes Association guidelines were followed for classification of DM. Fasting serum insulin assay was done for calculation of homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with a cut-off of >2.5. Patients with normal baseline glucose tolerance test (GTT) or IGT were followed up prospectively for 6 months at 3 monthly interval. Appropriate statistical tests were applied. Results: Of the 505 cirrhotic patients screened, 158 patients fulfilled the selection criteria. The overall mean age of these 158 patients was 53.3 ± 11.5 years; majority were men (93.7%). As a significant proportion of patients belonged to Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP)-C (51.3%) followed by CTP-B and CTP-A. Seventy-four patients had self-reported diabetes (46.8%) at registration. Post-GTT, the prevalence of impaired IGT was 27.4%, and new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) was 11.9%. Patients with CTP-C were at greatest risk for either IGT or NODM (P < 0.05). IGT+NODM patients had high median values of 2-h GTT, fasting serum insulin and HOMA-IR compared to non-diabetic participants at admission with a significant trend increase at 3 and 6 months. Conclusion: The prevalence of glucose intolerance is significantly high in individuals with cirrhosis. A 2-h GGT unmasks a significant number of cirrhosis with normal fasting blood sugar and glycated haemoglobin. A trend towards an increase in glucose intolerance and insulin resistance is noted with increasing duration of illness.
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Incidence and factors associated with diabetic retinopathy among diabetic patients at arbaminch general hospital, gamo gofa Zone (longitudinal follow up data analysis)
Yilma Chisha, Wondwossen Terefe, Huruy Assefa
January-April 2017, 8(1):1-6
Background: Currently, 93 million people are estimated as living with diabetic retinopathy (DR) worldwide. The incidence, retinopathy-free survival time and associated factors of DR in developed countries have been well documented; but in Ethiopia, national data on incidence and associated factors of DR are lacking. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine incidence and factors associated with the development of DR among diabetic patients at Arbaminch General Hospital, Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: Longitudinal follow-up data analysis with record review of 400 diabetic patients was conducted at Arbaminch General Hospital. Among 400 diabetic patients, 270 diabetic patients with baseline information and without a history of hypertension at baseline were included in this study. Whereas, pregnancy induced diabetes and patients with retinopathy at baseline were excluded from this study. Consecutive sampling technique was applied to select study participants. Data of cohorts were extracted from medical record using pre-tested structured extraction checklist. Data cleaning, coding, categorising, merging and analysis carried out by STATA version 12. Descriptive statistics was done and summarised accordingly. Bivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was done to select potential candidates for the full model atP ≤ 0.25 and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was made to estimate the independent effect of predictors on the incidence of DR. Model diagnostic tests were performed and final model fitness was checked by Cox and Snell residuals; finally, statistical significance was tested atP < 0.05. Results: Overall incidence of DR at Arbaminch General Hospital among diabetic patients ever enrolled since 1990 E.C. was ~36 cases per 1000 patients per year and an estimated median time to develop was approximately 10 years. The incidence of diabetic retinopathy was high among patients whose disease duration was >12 years. Adjusted analysis showed that the hazard of developing DR was statistically and positively associated with baseline age, baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) level and fasting blood glucose (FBG) level. Conclusion: In the current study, the incidence of DR was high. Since baseline age, baseline SBP level and high FBG level were statistically and positively related with the development of DR; special care should be given in addition to routine care.
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Glycated haemoglobin: A marker of circulating lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes
Sheikh Ishaq, Iram Shabir, Arif A Bhat, Imran Shafi, Saima Mushtaq, Parvaiz A Shah, Azra Baba, Sabhiya Majid
January-April 2017, 8(1):18-21
Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a group of metabolic disorder and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and dyslipidaemia. Patients with T2DM have dyslipidaemia at wavering degrees, characterised by increased levels of triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. In the present study, we evaluated glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) as a marker of circulating lipids in patients with T2DM. Methods: Two hundred and thirty-nine patients with T2DM were enrolled for the study. A detailed biochemical and lipid profile was done for all patients. Results: Of 239 cases, 96 (40%) were male and 143 (60%) were female. Of 239 patients, 53 (22%) patients with T2DM had controlled glycaemia (HbA1c <6.5) and 186 (78%) patients had uncontrolled glycaemia (HbA1c ≥6.5). Pearson's correlation of HbA1c with all lipid parameters was statistically significant. HbA1c, however, had an inverse correlation with HDL and had a significant direct correlation with fasting blood glucose. Conclusion: The study reveals that HbA1c is not only a reliable glycaemic index but can also be used as an important indicator of dyslipidaemia in patients with T2DM.
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