Prevalence and risk factors for impaired glucose regulation among first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria
Haliru Ibrahim1, Fabian H Puepet2, Salisu B Muazu3, Bilkisu M Mubi4, Ibrahim D Gezawa5, Shettima K Mustapha4, Bukar Bakki4, Abdullahi M Talle4, Godspower C Michael6, Ibrahim Aliyu6
1 Department of Medicine, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria; Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Birnin Kudu, Jigawa, Nigeria
2 Department of Medicine, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria
3 Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
4 Department of Medicine, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria
5 Department of Medicine, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria; Department of Medicine, Family Medicine, and Paediatrics, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
6 Department of Medicine, Family Medicine, and Paediatrics, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
Dr. Salisu B Muazu
Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching hospital, Zaria.
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background/Purpose: Owing to genetic predilection of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the risk of developing impaired glucose metabolism is thought to be higher in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of those with T2DM. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glycemia (IFG) and its associated risk factors in FDRs of patients with T2DM. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of 320 cases (FDRs of T2DM outpatients) aged ≥25 years (145 males and 175 females) and 160 controls (76 males, 84 females) who were age and sex matched. All subjects underwent anthropometric, physical activity, and laboratory assessments after an overnight fast. Oral glucose tolerance test with 75g anhydrous glucose was administered. Fasting plasma glucose of 6.1–6.9 mmol/L and 2-h post-fasting glucose value of 7.8–11.0 mmol/L were used to define IFG and IGT, respectively. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software, version 20 (SPSS, Chicago, Illinois), and P value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean (standard deviation) age of the cases and controls was 38.4 (12.3) and 38.9 (10.3) years, respectively, P = 0.66. The prevalence rates of both IGT and IFG in cases and controls were (28.1% vs. 18.1%, P = 0.019 and 10.3% vs. 5.6%, P = 0.0001). The prevalence of IGT and IFG was found to be higher among females, P < 0.05. Multivariate analysis revealed abnormal waist circumference, being FDR, and elevated systolic blood pressure as risk factors for both the IGT and IFG, P < 0.05. Conclusion: FDRs of patients with T2DM are at higher risk of IGT or IFG. The risk increases with the development of obesity and elevated blood pressure in them.