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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 115-124

Prospective associations between a food-based Indian Diet Quality Score and type 2 diabetes risk among South Indian adults (CURES-154)

1 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Madras, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India; Department of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics Research, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics Research, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
4 Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
5 Department of Diabetology, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
6 Department of Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Directorate of Public Health, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Viswanathan Mohan
Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, ICMR Centre for Advanced Research on Diabetes, Dr. Mohan’s Diabetes Specialities Centre, WHO Collaborating Centre for Non-Communicable Diseases, International Diabetes Federation (IDF) Centre of Excellence in Diabetes Care, 4, Conran Smith Road, Gopalapuram, Chennai 600086, Tamil Nadu.
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JOD.JOD_35_19

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Background: Asian Indians are culturally different and have diverse dietary and culinary habits. Further, there are potential biological differences in metabolism due to genetic or cultural factors. This warrants the development of a unique population-specific food-based diet score for prevention of noncommunicable disorders. Materials and Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire in 1033 adults who participated in the 10-year follow-up study of Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiological Study (CURES). The diet score was developed considering eight food groups and one major cooking oil that were either significantly associated with a higher or lower risk of incident type 2 diabetes (T2D). The foods that showed a protective effect was assigned higher scores and vice versa for foods that increased the risk of diabetes assigned the lower. We further assessed the effect of Indian Diet Quality score (IDQS) and three popular diet quality indices: the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI), the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Diabetes Diet Score (DDS) in relation to the risk of incidence of diabetes among Indian population. Results: Higher IDQS is associated with a significant lower risk of diabetes incidence; however, no such significant association was observed with diet quality indices (DASH, HEI-2015, and DDS) and diabetes incidence. This warrants the need for population-specific diet score for Indians. Conclusion: Higher IDQS was associated with a lower risk of T2D among South Indian adults. Thus, IDQS can be a suitable tool to identify the diet–disease relationship especially in a population with diverse dietary intakes.

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