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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 218-223

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Asian Indian adolescents and young adults: Prevalence and its associated risk factors

1 Department of Translational Research, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, India
2 Department of Research Operations, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, India
3 Department of Diabetology, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Viswanathan Mohan
Chairman and Chief of Diabetology, Dr Mohan’s Diabetes Specialities Centre, IDF Centre of Excellence in Diabetes Care, President and Chief of Diabetes Research, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, ICMR Centre for Advanced Research on Diabetes, No. 4, Conran Smith Road, Gopalapuram, Chennai.
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jod.jod_104_20

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Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver disease in the youth. The aim of the study was to conduct a metabolic risk factor profiling of NAFLD in adolescents and young adults in Chennai city in south India. Materials and Methods: The study participants included adolescents (n = 188) and young adults (n = 201). Ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen was done using a high-resolution B mode ultrasonography system. Based on the intensity of echogenicity, various grades of fatty liver were classified. Anthropometry, fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL and LDL cholesterol were estimated. χ2 analysis was performed to compare frequencies and t-tests on continuous or measurable data. Odds ratio (OR) was used as an indicator for strength of association. Results: From the total of 389 study participants, 70 had NAFLD which includes 48 with grade I, 21 with grade II, and one participant with grade III NAFLD. About 80% of the participants with NAFLD were adults (≥20 years) and more males were affected (70%) than females (30%). Generalized obesity was present in 90% of the participants with NAFLD. After adjusting for age and gender, obesity [OR: 5.88; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.53–13.69; P-value: <0.001] and hyperglycemia [OR: 4.20; 95% CI: 1.75–10.08; P-value: <0.001] were significantly associated with NAFLD. Conclusion: With the higher prevalence rates of NAFLD noted in the study participants, prevention modalities should be adopted in the community by reducing obesity, healthy diet, and increased physical activity.

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